The Problems Not Solved Up To Now With Microprocessor Based Protective Devices (MPD) Application
1. Backup of MPD
backup is necessary? If yes, for which kind of protection and
by what kind of the relay such backup should be carried out (by
microprocessor based or by electromechanical)? What should be kind of
2. Replacement Spare Parts (RSP)
should be an optimum for RSP? What technique of its calculation for MPD of
different kinds? As well as where it to store? How to
provide fast MPD recovery, especially on unattended substantions?
3. Number of the Functions in Single MPD
should be optimal functions concentration in single MPD at which the fault of the single element can lead to failure at
once all functions of relaying incorporated in the MPD?
4. The Human Factor
to determine the "human factor" affect on reliability of the
relaying, sharply increased at transition from electromechanical
protection - to microprocessor? What it is necessary to make for
decrease of this affect?
5. Technical And Economic Effect
technical and economic effect (for MPD's user, but not for
the manufacturer) for replacement of electromechanical relays with MPD and
whether is it in general, or this transition is unprofitable?
Whether for all kinds of protection and for all voltage levels such replacement is expedient?
Whether expediently to replace electromechanical protection
with microprocessor based on the old substantions which have been not accommodated
for maintenance of microelectronics?
6. Tests of MPD
correctly and most efficiently to test MPD? In what volume and with what
periodicity? How to calibrate the test equipment applied to MPD testing?
7. Reliability (Damageability) of MPD
correctly to consider reliability (damageability) of MPD: by number
of misoperations of relaying or by total of revealed
faults in MPD hardware and the revealed errors in software (even
if these faults and errors was discovered before relaying
8. Criterions of Electromagnetic Compatibility
should be technical requirements and parameters of substantion for
maintenance of reliable work of MPD by criterion of electromagnetic
compatibility? By what technique and how really to increase
serviceability of substantion for reliable MPD maintenance?
9. Service Conditions for MPD
should be an optimum temperature regime at MPD maintenance ? When it is
necessary to use an air conditioning in a relay hall and when it is
enough only ventilation in the relay cabinets? Whether it is necessary to use in
the relay cabinets with MPD heating of air for prevention of fall of dew?
10. A Problem of Remote Intentional Electromagnetic Affecting on MPD and Hackers Attacks
How to prevent or, even, to mitigate remote intentional electromagnetic affecting (military, terroristic or criminal character)
and hackers attacks on MPD with the purpose of disturbances and misoperations in relay protection?
11. Requirements To a Design, Parameters and Software
should be optimal MPD design and its optimal software? Who should
formulate requirements to a hardware and software and how to force manufacturers to accept these requirements?
12. Universality and Iterchangeability
it is possible to reach universality and iterchangeability of
separate MPD's modules as it occurs now with personal computers? How to
achieve creation of the market of universal modules for MPD and what
for this purpose are necessary conditions?
13. The Tender
correctly to perform tenders for purchase MPD? How to revise the tender
documentation and MPD? How to provide the maximal MPD quality and
how to choose the
best device at a stage of the tender?